GENERAL CONDICONES OF THE COUNTRY
Population, ethnic groups and languages
China is in the east of Asia, in the western border of the Pacific Ocean. It has a terrestrial surface of 9.6 million square kilometers. Besides the continent, it counts on great marine extensions. The sea of Bohai, the Yellow sea, the Eastern sea and the Southern sea are united and surrounded the Eastern and suroriental coast by the country.
The topography of the Chinese territory is complicated. The mountainous zones, the plateaus and the hills represent the 65 percent of the terrestrial surface of the country. The numerous mountains constitute one of their main geographic characteristics: 7 of 19 mountains of the world whose height exceeds the 8,000 meters on the level of the sea find in China. The territory is high in the low west and in the east. The length overall of the numerous rivers that flow by the country is of 220,000 kilometers, and the river basin of more than 5,000 of them surpasses the 100 square kilometers. In China Lagos with a surface of more are 2,800 of a square kilometer and 13 Lagos with a surface of more than 1,000 kilometers square.
The 98 percent of the terrestrial surface of China is between 20° and 50° of North latitude, reason why great extensions of their territory are in the zones of tempered and subtropical climate. This geographic situation determines that the climate is mainly monsoon: winds of the north in winter and winds of the south in summer; four seasons clearly differentiated; humid and warm summer; and cold currents, frequent drizzles and typhoons. The extreme continental climate, characterized by the strong oscillations of the temperatures and precipitations, constitutes another characteristic of China. When comparing the average temperatures of January and July, the average temperature of the Chinese winter is much more low that the one of other countries of the same latitude, whereas the one of the summer she is much more high. The annual precipitations fall as it increases the distance of the sea, being among 1,000 and 2,000 mm in the coast of the Southeast and among 100 and 200 mm in the regions of the northwest.
In agreement with the climatic differences, China can be divided in three natural zones. 1) Monsoon zone of the east. It occupies the 45 percent of the national terrestrial surface, counts on the 90 percent of the cultivable Earth and the 95 percent of the national population. Remarkably influenced by the monsoons, its climate is humid and semihumid. Most of this zone does not exceed the 1,000 meters on the level of the sea. The extensive plains intercrossed by numerous rivers constitute the main agricultural zones of the country. 2) Dry zone of the west. It occupies the 30 percent of the national terrestrial surface, counts on the 10 percent of the cultivable Earth and the 4 percent of the national population. Its climate is dry and semi-dry. The abundant vegetation of the desert and dry prairies of this zone constitutes the main grass of the country. 3) Frozen zone of the Qinghai-Tibet plateau. It occupies the 25 percent of the national terrestrial surface, counts on the 0.8 percent of the cultivable Earth and the 0.8 percent of the national population. Its medium altitude is superior to the 4,000 meters on the level of the sea and is formed in its majority by river basins of inner rivers in which the cold and the glaciers exert a strong influence.
According to the stipulations of the Constitution, the administrative regions are divided as it follows:
1) The country is divided in independent provinces, regions and municipalities directly subordinated to the Central Government.
2) The independent provinces and regions are divided in independent prefectures, independent districts, districts and municipalities.
3) The independent districts and districts are divided in corners, corners of ethnic minorities and towns. The independent regions, prefectures and districts are independent localities of the ethnic minorities. The State establishes special administrative regions in necessary case. At present, there are in all the country 4 municipalities directly subordinated to the Central Government: Peking, Shanghai, Tianjin and Chongqing; 23 provinces: Hebei, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Liaoning, Jilin, Heilongjiang, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Anhui, Fujian, Jiangxi, Shandong, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Guangdong, Hainan, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Gansu, Qinghai and Taiwan; and 5 independent regions: Inner Mongolia, Guangxi, Tibet, Ningxia and Xinjiang. The 1 of July of 1997 formally settled down Special the Administrative Region of Hong Kong (RAEHK) and the 20 of December of 1999 the Administrative Region of Macao was based Special (RAEM).
Population, ethnic groups and languages
China is the country more colonizing with the world, with a total of 1.295.330.000 inhabitants and one relatively high demographic densidad. The distribution of the population is irregular: more in the east and the countryside and less in the west and the cities. The number of the population is increased very quickly. Against this serious problem, China imposed from 70 years the familiar planning to control the population increase and to reduce to the natality every year
China is a multi-ethnic country, in which, to part there are of them, they live 55 ethnic minorities, among them zhuang, hui, uigur, yi, miao man, it, the tibetana, mongol, tujia, the Korean, dong, yao, bai, hani, kazaja, dai, li, etc. Among the 55 ethnic minorities, 18 count with more of a million members, 15 count less than with a million and the other 22 count on of about thousands to several tens of thousands of members.
With respect to his distribution they have inhabit, them in all the country and they are concentrated mainly in the river basins of the rivers Yellow, Yangtsé and Rep it, as well as in the plains of the rivers Songhua and Liaohe. In spite of the reduced thing of its population, the surface inhabited by the ethnic minorities represents between a 50 and 60 percent of the national territory. During long time there are, them and the diverse ethnic minorities have established ample political and economic bonds, and have carried out cultural interchanges, forming close relations of interdependence and common development.
The official language is the Chinese, used by the most numerous population of the country, whereas the 55 ethnic minorities have their own languages generally.