Geographic situation: China, that limits with 15 countries, is located in the east of Asia and the coast the west of the Pacific Ocean. Their 18. 000 km of the continental coast are characterized by a topography very varied in which the steep coasts alternate with level beaches. Taiwan and Hainan are, in this order, the majors islands of the country.
China measures 5,000 km of this the west (what it supposes a hour difference of more than four hours) and 5,500 km of north to the south. The relief of China, that offers a descendant aspect of the west to this, is very varied. Four great plateaus are distinguished: the one of Qinghai-Tibet, the one of Yunnan-Guizhou, the one of Loess, the Northwest of China and the one of Inner Mongolia; and three plains: the one of the Northeast of China, the one of the North and the one of the Courses Half and Inferior of the Changjiang river (Yangtsé). The different geographic configuration gives rise to one varied range of landscapes, one of attractive the tourist ones of China.
With a length of 6,300 km, the Changjiang river is longest of the country and third longest one of the world, behind the Amazon and of the Nile. Throughout its course a laid out special itinerary of points of tourist interest has drawn up. The Huanghe river (Yellow), the second longest one of the country, has a length of 5. 464 km; its river basin, considered as the cradle of the Chinese civilization, lodges old and famous landscapes created by its inhabitants.
Climate: Most of China is in the zones warmed up and subtropical. The four stations of the year are perceived clearly. Given the vastness of the territory, its climate offers a defendant diversity: when in the northeast it is total winter, the plants bloom in Guangdong, Guangxi and to the south of Qinling, and the islands of the Sea of Southern China present/display own views of the tropical climate.
History and Culture
Segén the older documents written, the history of China goes back back to 4,500 - 5,000 years. For more than 2. 000 years (221 a.n.e. - 1911 n. e.) China lived under a feudal regime in which all the power was concentrate into the hands of the emperor. In 1911 the Dr. Sun Yat-sen, one of the most excellent personalities of Chinese contemporary history, threw the feudal imperial regime down and founded the Repéblica of China. Later, after continuous civil wars and the eight years of the War of Resistance against Japan, it appeared the second great figure of contemporary China, Mao Zedong, that first of October of 1949 proclaimed the Popular Repéblica China. Thus socialist country of democratic-popular dictatorship with the town like the owner of the nation has been founded. From 1978 Deng Xiaoping, the third outstanding personality of the recent one
history of China, formulated and started up the reform policy and opening, process that has allowed China to give was step forward in the way of the construction of a modern socialist country and to become a developing nation that concentrates the world-wide attention.
They were the Chinese who invented bréjula, the paper, the press and the powder. The three old construction sites: the Great Wall (whose construction began in year 220 a. n. e.), the Great Peking-Hangzhou Channel (of 1,794 km in length and 1,400 years of antiquity) and the darez (system of particular irrigation of the independent region of Xinjiang, consisting of wells connected by underground channel) of 3. 000 km in length excavated for more than 2,000 years, not only have been demonstrating to the laborioridad and the intelligence of the Chinese town, but they constitute part
outstanding of the existing itineraries of tourist interest in China.
The architecture can be divided in several classes. , Nevertheless most representative it is imperial palaces. In order to realize the hegemony of the emperor, their palaces are built on a high base and, with very long light, and not very often they lean in columns. This architectonic style, call of “great ceiling”, is considered like the flagrantest characteristic of the old ones
constructions of China. The Imperial Palace of Peking constitutes a typical example of this style.
The garden belongs to another architectonic type. The imperial gardens reénen in a whole the beauty of different places, combining in calculated harmony the rocks and the water with high palaces, which emphasizes the imperial style. The more representative imperial gardens are those of the Palace of Summer and those of the Palace of Winter, both in Beijing.Los deprived gardens, that present/display another sort of garden, usually are residences of retailers and civil servants. Most remarkable they are in the city of Suzhou; the atmosphere multiplicity created with the wise person
disposition of plants and rocks, bridges and streams, in this way turn into peace oasis, revealing the desire of their proprietors to move away of the worldly activity.
The civil house constitutes the third main type of construction. House with patio quadrangular traditional of Peking (patio formed by an enclosure surrounded from rooms to that it was acceded by the South side), is especially practical and calm. The great “patios” of the Qiao family and the Qi family, residences of old retailers and civil servants of the north of China, are tourist enclaves of forced visit. In the south it is necessary to emphasize the houses of style of the province of Anhui risen to the border of the brook; the black roofing tiles and the white walls confer a peculiar elegance to them.
The poetry is the sort par excellence of Chinese classic Literature. The most famous poets of China are Qu Yuan, that lived more ago than 2,000 a&os, and Li Bai, Du Fu and Bai Juyi, all of them of the Tang dynasty. Prosa poetic of Its Shi and Xin Qiji, literate of the Song dynasty (960 - 1279), has transmitted of generation in generation hastanuestros days. The four novels called classic, created during the dynasties Ming and Qing, comprise of
world-wide literary patrimony: Peregrination to the west, the border of the water. Romance of the three kingdoms and the dream of the red mansions. Nowadays they continue staging some theater pieces of Guam Hanqing, famous dramatist of the Yuan dynasty, among them Tragedy of Doue and the kiosk in front of the river.
China is the producing country of soothes. The Route of Seda left from Xi'an (province of Shaanxi). The embroiderings with varied reasons, in whose preparation threads are used of soothes of diverse colors, also are very appreciated, in particular those of the provinces of Hunan, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Sichuan and Guangdong. The lacquers of Fujian, the ceramic trichroma of the Tang dynasty (made in the province of Henan), cloisonés of Peking, the articles of jade and the wool carpets, are artisan objects with one long tradition, that, given its quality, is worth the pain to take like memory.
Society and Economy
Society: China is a multinational and pluriconfesional country. Besides the ethnic group they have, to belongs 92% of the population, exist 55 minority nationalities. The main religions of China are the buddhism, the taoísmo, Islam, the catholicism and the Protestantism (called popularly Christianity). The freedom of religious belief is a basic principle of the policy of the Chinese Government.
Economy: China is a country essentially agriculturist: 80% of their population are made up of farmers. The development of the Chinese modern industry began in the middle of century XIX; from the foundation of the Popular Repéblica China the productivity has increased, and for more than 40 years, in particular the two éltimas decades has registered a spectacular increase. At present, the industrial sectors whereupon count the country form a complete system comparativily. The traditional industries, like the metallurgy, the mechanics and the machinery, the oil, chemical, textile industry and the light industry have undergone a remarkable development and they have consolidated. On the other hand, they have been settled down and developing industrial sectors until recently nonexistent, like the industries automobile, electronic, aeronautical and naval, and the synthetic fiber manufacture.