Initial datas on Chinese and the studies superiors in China
China is a great unified and multinational country developing that is located in the east of Asia. Its surface is of 9.600.000 km2s and its population of 1,200 million inhabitants; of them, the 10 percent is member of the 55 minority ethnic groups, whereas the 90 percent comprises of the ethnic group have, whose language, the Chinese, very many more is extended than the languages of the other nationalities.
For historical and geographic reasons, the Chinese is a language with a infinity of dialects. In the fonológico level, the standard articulation of the Chinese mandarin, the official language, is the one of the dialect of Peking, whose basic vocabulary comes from the northern dialects and whose grammar
it bases on written up model texts in the modern language.
In 1955 the Government established the officiality of putonghua as language comén of the ethnic group has and initiated his diffusion and popularization.
The Chinese dialects can be very different, but they share a same system of writing. The first Chinese characters were pictograms; with time, the majority of them became logofónicas spellings. Safe in some exceptional cases, each Chinese character, that differs from all the others, represents a syllable and it express a meaning. The writing went incessantly evolving paralelamente to the development of the Chinese civilization, from the first inscriptions on animal bone and tortoise shells, whose antiquity surpasses the 3,000 anuses, to the writing regularized of nowadays. The total of used Chinese characters throughout the history exceeds the 50,000, of which at the moment they are used around 10.000; and of these, used most frequently in the press and the daily life they add 6.000. To learn the Chinese well is not difficult, whenever certain methods are followed and it studies in suitable surroundings.
Since the organization and the regulations of the secondary educations of China are the same for the national students and the foreigners, she becomes necessary to present/display them briefly.
The education superior includes the professional formation, the regular university courses and the studies of posgrado. The institutions that have to their position the education superior are the centers of professional formation, the institutes and the universities, which act the three as following: teaching, the scientific research and the benefit of social services.
At the end of 1997 China it counted on 1,020 secondary educations university, 176,400 post-graduate and 3.172.700 students.
In the secondary educations, teaching is distributed rigorously fulfilling the programs and the curricula official. Between the pedagogical principles they emphasize the explanation of the lessons, the discussions in class, the experimentation and the establishment of positions of a guardian; also, on the combination of the knowledge acquisition and its practical application is insisted.
The Chinese school year is divided in two semesters, of an approximated duration of 20 weeks, that begin the first in September and second in February. The classes are distributed in five days to the week. Besides the vacations of summer and winter, the nonschool days include the day of New Year, the Day the International of the Work (1 of May) and two days on the occasion of the 1 of October, National Celebration. The other holiday commemorations and celebrations are not days.
The Chinese secondary educations confer the following academic degrees: lawyer, to magíster and doctor.
1) Title of lawyer. The university sends east title to the students who have fulfilled the curriculum with the required qualifications.
2) Title of magíster: After pass corresponding and reading tesina, east title to the post-graduate college students and of institutes, as well as to the students is conferred who are in possession of an equivalent academic file.
3) Title of doctor: After pass corresponding and reading the thesis, east title to the university doctorandos and of institutes of scientific research, as well as to the students is conferred who are in possession of an equivalent academic file.
In agreement with the administrative norms of Chinese lasuniversidades, the students must go in advance to the corresponding university to compliment the matriculation proceedings. The new students to debensuperar the examination that credits its university level. The attendance to class is obligatory, unless they exist motivosque justify the absence; also, the students must realize all the examinations including in the curriculum. Concluded the school year and pass stipulated, the student who obtains the qualifications corresponding to the skilled subjects passes to a course superior. In case of being suspended, the student passes to a course inferior, repeats the same course or interrupts his studies, segén the pertinent stipulations.